Man. Gas Processes
Contamination Threat Modes
Residuals - Components
Sources of MGP Liquid Effluent
FMG Plants in the US
Parallel MG Technologies
Think you've found a gas works?
Locating and Confirming a Site
Locations of US Gas Plants
FMGP In The News
FMGP In The Arts
Coal-tar Site Litigation
Related sites on the Internet
Literature of Manufactured Gas
Publications by Dr. Hatheway
Slide Shows by Dr. Hatheway
Slide Shows by others
Locations of Gas Plants and Other Coal-tar Sites in the
THE STATE OF TEXAS
gas came to coastal Texas barely before the Civil War and did not spread widely
thereafter. Workable seams of Cretaceous-aged coal were discovered and published
by 1840, and thereafter large amounts of Tertiary-aged lignites came to light.
It is probable that early manufactured gas was able to subsist on indigenous
feedstock from the very beginning. By 1877, later State Geologist Edwin T.
Dumble (Dumble, 1892) was commissioned by the Houston & Texas Central Railway to
investigate the lignites and other brown coals as potential locomotive steam
fuel. Dumble was able to make coke from lignite by adding “a small percentage”
of coal-tar pitch. This improved the usual powdery nature of the lignite
product. In 1882, Professor H.H. Dinwiddie, then President of the Agricultural
and Mechanical College of Texas recommended the utilization of Texas lignite for
production of water (blue) gas, probably as an industrial fuel. Dumble was then
sent to the lignite regions of Germany and Austria to recover such technology as
would place Texas in a position to manufacture gas from its lignites (Dumble,
ibid.). From Dumble’s remarks one can presume that the use of Texas lignite for
manufacturing of illuminating gas, as well as fuel gas would likely have begun
within the remaining decade of the 1890s.
all other States, the Texas Railroad Commission (TRC; Established 1891), never
regulated the production and sale of manufactured gas. Following the truly big
crude oil strikes of 1918-1919, the Legislature created a Gas Utilities Division
within the TRC. Annual reports of activities appear with 1921 but the control
was limited to conservation of natural gas at the oil or gas field and no
information is to be had with respect to manufactured gas. The total number of
Texas sites known to the author (78) is significantly larger than shown by US
EPA (1985, Survey of Town Gas and By-Product Production and Location in the U.S.
[1880-1950]), due to historical economic fluctuations relating to fuel and
feedstocks and a relatively large number of producer gas plants that began
operating on lignite, beginning in about 1890.
Most of the
distribution and marketing systems surviving today stem from mid-1930s
consolidations to develop and distribute natural gas, including those of the
Southern Union Gas Company (Austin), the Texas Public Service Company (of
Peoples Light & Power Company), the Lone Star Gas Company (Dallas-Fort Worth),
and the Texas Cities Gas Company.
Click the blue "EPA" link below to view the
Texas map of the EPA 1985 Radian FMGP Report.
Click the green "Hatheway" link
below to view the
Texas map of Professor Hatheway's research.
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