Man. Gas Processes
Contamination Threat Modes
Residuals - Components
Sources of MGP Liquid Effluent
FMG Plants in the US
Parallel MG Technologies
Think you've found a gas works?
Locating and Confirming a Site
Locations of US Gas Plants
FMGP In The News
FMGP In The Arts
Coal-tar Site Litigation
Related sites on the Internet
Literature of Manufactured Gas
Publications by Dr. Hatheway
Slide Shows by Dr. Hatheway
Slide Shows by others
Locations of Gas Plants and Other Coal-tar Sites in the
THE STATE OF VERMONT
limited experience with manufactured gas largely was confined to the cities
along its east border, the Connecticut River, at Lake Champlain, and a few of
the cities marking the main early roads. Vermont has the distinction that its
Burlington No. 2 (Canal Street) gas works was the last to serve straight
manufactured gas in the United States (1966) and was one of the first two Figs
placed on the NPL, and on the first round (1982) on nominations and selections,
resulting in 115 listings.
arrived in Vermont about 1853, at Burlington, on the east bank of Lake Champlain
and that city has three FMGP locations. Most of the major cities in the State,
though relatively small, received gas plants in the 1950s, with one being
constructed (1863) during the civil war (St. Johns bury). Thereafter only
limited expansion occurred during the remainder of the 19th century. With the
advent of the 20th century, new plants were constructed to support carbureted
water gas production.
There is indication
that multiple gas plants existed at Burlington, Montpelier, Rutland.
processes likely were dominated by wood gas, phasing into coal-gas at about the
time of the Centennial, then carbureted water gas (CWG) after 1900. It is likely
that the earliest gas machines were by Cubin, which was adaptable to fatwood,
and which we know was present at Woodstock in 1864, where gas was made from
“kerosene tar.” CWG was installed, however, at four of the cities in 1883,
likely under sales pressure from UGI, of Philadelphia. It can be expected that
acetylene gas plants were common after 1894 in many of the towns and it is known
that residential acetylene plants were in place in the more substantial homes at
Due to the
relatively smallness of event the major cities, consolidations were not common,
but such was present in the 1916 merger that created the Montpelier & Bare Light
& Power Co., where the cities were about 15 km distance.
company activity in Vermont began about 1894, when UGI owned the St. Albans gas
plant, and then reappeared in 1908 when the Green Mountain Electric Co. of
Burlington took over existing gas manufacturing, and the small plant at
Stamford, on the Massachusetts boundary was also owned in that year by the
Massachusetts Lighting Companies. In 1918 the General Gas & Electric Co.
controlled Rutland’s gas generation and two Boston holding companies were in
place in 1924 (Bare, St. Albans and Springfield merged to form Vermont Lighting
Corp.) and in 1925, the Twin States Gas & Electric Co. (Boston) owned the plants
at Bennington, Brattleboro and St. Johns bury. The latter holding company merged
(1943) into the Central Vermont Public Service Co.)
understandably was late in arriving in Vermont. In fact, six of the 14 counties
never had gas service in this manufactured gas era. By 1952, LPG was being
provided in 6 counties and only two counties (Caledonia and Chittenden) were
being served by manufactured gas, including the cities and towns then served by
the St. Johns bury Gas Company and the Green Mountain Power Corporation.
Click the blue "EPA" link below to view the
Vermont map of the EPA 1985 Radian FMGP Report.
Click the green "Hatheway" link
below to view the
Vermont map of Professor Hatheway's research.